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Feline - All You Want To Know About Feline



Feline - All You Want To Know About Feline


Feline - All You Want To Know About Feline
Feline - All You Want To Know About Feline
Feline, (family Felidae), any of 37 cat species that among others include the cheetah, puma, jaguar, leopard, lion, lynx, tiger, and a house cat. Cats are native to almost every region on Earth, with the exception of Australia and Antarctica. they're carnivorous mammals that sleep in a good sort of habitats, but they're typically 
woodland animals.


Most cats are patterned with spots, stripes, or rosettes, but some, like the puma (Puma concolor), jaguarundi (Herpailurus yaguarondi), and lion (Panthera leo), are uniform in color. Black or nearly black coats occur in individuals of several species. Although lynx (genus Lynx) has a stubby tail, most cats have an extended tail that creates up a few third of the animal’s total length. the top is characterized by a brief nose and round face, usually with short ears. the sole cat with a well-developed mane is that the male African lion. Cat feet have sharp claws that are retractile except within the cheetah. In most felids the male is larger than the feminine.


Cats are noted for purring when content and for snarling, howling, or spitting when in conflict with another of their kind. The so-called “big cats” (genus Panthera), especially the lion, often roar, growl, or shriek. Usually, however, cats are silent. Many cats use “clawing trees,” upon which they leave the marks of their claws as they stand and drag their front feet downward with the claws extended. Whether such behavior is for the aim of cleaning or sharpening the claws or just to stretch is debatable, but the behavior is innate; kittens raised in isolation soon begin to claw objects.
The larger cats are strong, fierce, and very dangerous when hungry. due to their large size, they occasionally attack humans. Although tigers and leopards are most noted as man-eaters, lions and jaguars also can be dangerous. In North America the puma, also referred to as the cougar or cougar, tends to avoid contact with humans, but a couple of attacks occur annually, especially in areas where development encroaches on areas of high puma density, like the western us. Similarly, attacks on livestock often necessitate the removal of problem animals.


The fur of some cats is usually in great demand, especially fur with contrasting colors and patterns like spots or stripes. The demand is such some rare cats are hunted and trapped illegally and are in peril of becoming extinct. In North America none of the cats employed by the fur trade is endangered. Strict regulations allow a sustainable take of animals from healthy populations of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis), bobcat (Lynx rufus), and puma.

Feline - All You Want To Know About Feline
Feline - All You Want To Know About Feline

Natural History

The lion, tiger (Panthera tigris), and cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) are mainly terrestrial, but they're agile climbers; the leopard (Panthera pardus), jaguar (P. once), ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), and other cats are considerably reception in trees. The larger cats range over large areas, often roving alone or with a companion. Occasionally one may become a member of a family group. Only lions are gregarious, with pride consisting of as many as 30 individuals.


Almost all cats prey on small mammals and birds or large herbivores like deer and various sorts of antelope. The fishing cat (Prionailurus viverrinus) feeds largely on fishes and clams or snails and thus fits into a rather different niche than that of most cats. The flat-headed cat (Prionailurus planiceps) is that the only species known to feed to any extent on vegetation like fruit and sweet potatoes. Food caching occurs in larger cats, and a few may drag their kill into a tree or place it under a bush after the initial gorging. Cats survive a feast-or-famine routine, gorging themselves when a kill is formed then fasting for several days.


Most hunting is completed using vision and hearing. Typically solitary while hunting, a cat steals up to its feed on padded feet. Long, sensitive whiskers on the face aid the cat during the stalking of the prey by brushing against obstacles and enabling the cat to avoid making excessive noise. When on the brink of its prey, the cat overwhelms it during a short, quick rush or leap. Cats can move in no time during a short dash but aren't built for sustained speed. The cheetah, which usually hunts during the day, is credited with being the speediest of mammals, capable of speeds of quite 100 km per hour (62 mph). Cats believe superior speed and reflexes to overtake their dodging prey, which frequently has greater endurance. If overtaken, the prey is thrown down and dispatched with a deep bite, usually to the neck.


The gestation of most smaller cats is approximately two months, which of the larger cats is closer to four months. One to 6 kittens structure the standard litter. Female cats may have from four to eight nipples. The breeding season usually is within the late winter or early spring. Some cats (lions, tigers, and leopards) are capable of breeding at any time during the year, and lots of species are induced ovulators, ovulation is induced by hormones released during copulation. the dimensions of the animal doesn't seem to work out the litter size, number of litters, or time of the breeding season. within the larger cats, however, the initial breeding age is older; the females could also be three or four years aged and males as old as five or six. Smaller cats may breed when but a year old. Most litters are born in places seldom disturbed, like during a rocky cavern, under a fallen tree, or during a dense thicket. The serval (Leptailurus serval) uses an old porcupine or aardvark burrow. In most species the male doesn't aid within the care and raising of the young, and the feminine may need to guard against his attacks on the kittens.

Feline - All You Want To Know About Feline
Feline - All You Want To Know About Feline

Form and performance

The agility of a cat is clear in its anatomy. The clavicle, or collarbone, is far reduced in size. It doesn't connect with other bones but is buried within the muscles of the shoulder region. this enables the animal to spring on its prey without danger of breaking the bone. The hind legs are well developed, with powerful muscles that propel the cat in its spring toward or onto prey. additionally to the facility of the hind legs, the animal uses strong back muscles to straighten the vertebral column and supply extra force in springing and running.


Cats are generally nocturnal in habit. Their large eyes are especially adapted for seeing in the dark . The retina features a layer of guanine called the tapetum lucidum, which reflects light and causes the eyes to excel at night when illuminated. Cats have good senses of sight and hearing, but their sense of smell isn't as developed as that of the canids, a fact suggested by the cat’s short snout.


A predisposition to cleanliness is well established among cats. They groom themselves with their rasping tongue, preening at length after a meal. Feces and urine are covered as a matter of habit. Cats differ in their reaction to water; most species are reluctant to enter it but will swim readily when necessary. Nervous tail wagging is common to all or any cats, from the lion to the domestic cat . Kittens learn it from the mother; the behaviour is related to play, which may be a prelude to predation as an adult.
Cats are the foremost highly specialized of the terrestrial flesh-eating mammals. they're powerfully built, with an outsized brain and powerful teeth. The teeth are adapted to 3 functions: stabbing (canines), anchoring (canines), and cutting (carnassial molars). Cats haven't any flat-crowned crushing teeth and thus don't chew or grind their food but instead cut it. All cats are adapted to be strict flesh eaters, an assumption made totally on the idea of their alimentary canal and dentition. keep with a carnivorous habit, the cat features a simple gut; the tiny intestine is merely about 3 times the length of the body. The tongue altogether cats features a patch of sharp, backward-directed spines near the tip, which has the looks and feel of a rough file; these spines help the cat lap liquids and groom itself. There are five padded toes on the front foot and 4 on the rear. the primary toe and its pad on the front foot are raised in order that only four toes register during a track.


Cats have a reduced number of premolar and molar teeth; the standard dental formula includes only 30 teeth. The incisors are small and chisel-like, the canines long and pointed. The premolars are sharp, and infrequently an upper premolar could also be lacking. The lower molar is elongate and sharp, the upper molar rudimentary. due to the reduction within the number and size of the cheek teeth, an area remains between the canines and premolars altogether cats except the cheetah. Felids form the foremost strictly carnivorous group within the Carnivora , and therefore the highly developed carnassial teeth reflect this specialized food habit. there's little if any specialization within the teeth for grinding or chewing. The strong masseter muscles, which raise the mandible , restrict lateral movement. The jaw primarily moves vertically for holding the prey during a viselike grip and for slicing off pieces of meat with the carnassials. Meat is thus stop and swallowed in relatively unchewed chunks that are weakened by strong enzymes and acids within the alimentary canal .
Feline - All You Want To Know About Feline
Feline - All You Want To Know About Feline


Evolution And Classification

The history of the cat family is often traced through the fossil record to the Late Eocene (about 37 million years ago). The “cat pattern” seems to possess been established very early within the evolution of mammals, for the first cats were already typical cats at a time when the ancestors of most other modern mammalian species were scarcely recognizable. Cats of the subfamily Felinae appeared in western Eurasia about 10 million years ago and have continued almost unchanged into times. Genetic studies examining living and fossil pantherines—cats of the subfamily Pantherinae—suggest that the pantherine lineage emerged in central Asia some 16 million years ago and subsequently spread to other continents.



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